Whitepapers

Prevention and Correction of Condenser Tube Fouling and Failures Incorporating Non-Destructive Testing and Tracer Gas Leak Detection

02/01/2015

Generating companies lose hundreds of millions of dollars annually to problems related to condenser and heat exchanger fouling, corrosion and tube leaks.  In fact, the Condenser Tube Failure Control Program of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI, Matthews, J.) disclosed that condenser tube failures contributed to almost 25,000 outages nationwide during a recent four year period and continue to be one of the most pressing issues related to plant output and availability.  

To adequately prevent condenser tube failures, effective condenser tube cleaning and non-destructive testing must be performed.  Effective tube cleaning should ideally remove all deposits, leaving only the cleanest metal surface.  Once tubes are free of fouling deposits, multi-frequency Eddy Current testing should be used to establish the overall integrity of condenser tubes.  Plugging is recommended for the tubes with poor integrity that put condenser reliability at risk.  If tube failures do occur, advances in tracer gas leak detection, specifically those using sulfur hexafluoride and helium, can be used to quickly locate sources of circulating water tube leakage and return the unit to reliable operation.

This paper will examine implications of condenser tube fouling and failures, and the available non-destructive technologies for their prevention and correction.

This white paper is sponsored by Conco Systems, Inc.

Return on Investment Analysis: The Economics of Regular Condenser Maintenance

02/01/2015

This White Paper summarizes a decade of research by Conco Systems, Inc. to obtain a better understanding of the behavior of steam surface condensers and their impact on your plant’s bottom line. This research was followed by the development of techniques to model condenser performance, with a view to converting deviations from proper behavior to the equivalent avoided costs. Mathematical techniques were also developed to ascertain the optimum frequency of condenser cleaning to minimize these avoided costs. The full details of this work are published in a book by ASME Press, New York entitled, Steam Surface Condensers: Basic Principles, Performance Monitoring and Maintenance.

This white paper is sponsored by Conco Systems, Inc.

Innovations in Cleaning Technology for Condensers: Case Studies

02/01/2015

Poor performance of the condenser can often restrict the output capacity of the plant.  Sensitivity to condenser fouling is affected by the heat transfer characteristics of the deposits present, cooling water type, flow and temperature, among other things.  This increase in sensitivity and restriction in output is a common contributing factor to operating losses.  Taking corrective action is required to restore the plant to optimal operating conditions.

Innovations in condenser tube cleaning technology targeting site specific fouling conditions have resulted in dramatic improvements in plant performance, megawatt output and in fossil plants, reduced CO2 emissions.  Additionally, reliability and availability are improved as protection from under-deposit corrosion and higher levels of cleanliness are achieved therefore limiting the costly downtime and damage to key components affected by condenser tube leaks.  

Optimizing the performance of the condenser for maximum output depends on selecting and applying the most effective cleaning methodology.  This task is significantly impacted by the deposition or fouling characteristics present, corrosion phenomena and the effectiveness of the technology applied for removing it.  Recognizing different situations call for different measures and innovation is often required to achieve the best solution, this paper presents real cases that required different approaches to yield the best results.

Tube fouling characteristics are reviewed, innovations in cleaning technology are introduced and real cases where improvements in plant performance have been achieved through the successful application of the appropriate cleaning technology will be presented.  

This white paper is sponsored by Conco Systems, Inc.

What is System Level Thermo-Fluid Analysis?

01/16/2015

This paper will explain some of the fundamentals of System Level Thermo-Fluid Analysis and demonstrate why 1D CFD is not an accurate description. It will shed some light on both the philosophy that underpins the system approach and how and why it is used. It will cover:
• Building Blocks of System Level Analysis
• Thermo & Fluid Dynamics
• Pressure Drop: Paying your Dues
• Understanding The Fourth Dimension

This white paper is sponsored by Mentor Graphics - Mechanical Analysis Division.

Non-stop green energy

10/15/2014

Wind power is generally accepted as one of the cleanest and most desirable
sources of electricity. The performance and efficiency of wind turbines depend
greatly on continuous and reliable operation. In the case of an interruption,
Sulzer’s service teams are available to provide rapid repair—even in challenging
offshore environments, as a recent mission in the North Sea illustrates.

 

This white paper is sponsored by Sulzer.

Customizing Weld Procedures

10/15/2014

Sulzer offers customized weld repair solutions for critical rotating equipment. In some situations, conventional rotor weld repair procedures cannot be used on certain components. The required postweld heat treatment of such procedures would result in permanent distortions and loss of critical dimensional tolerances. Sulzer engineers have developed a specialized weld procedure for gas turbine disks that addresses this issue and makes repair with a fast turnaround possible.

 

This white paper is sponsored by Sulzer.

The Basics of Temperature Measurement Using Thermocouples and RTDs

10/08/2014

Review the basics of choosing a sensor for temperature measurement. Whether it’s a thermocouple or RTD instrument, consideration must be given to its type, temperature range, sensor materials, relative sensitivity and several other factors. This white paper compares and contrasts some common aspects to help you make an informed selection between sensor types and avoid potential problems in your application.

 

This white paper is sponsored by Acromag.

Electrical Ground Rules: Best Practices for Grounding Your Electrical Equipment

10/08/2014

Learn the best practices for grounding your electrical equipment. Review the importance of circuit grounding and its role in protecting your electrical equipment and personnel from severe shock while maintaining signal integrity. Also, take a look at the US A/C power system and its use of earth ground.

 

This white paper is sponsored by Acromag.

Introduction to the Two-Wire Transmitter and the 4-20mA Current Loop

10/08/2014

In two-wire 4-20mA control loops, we use 2-wire transmitters to convert various process signals representing flow, speed, position, level, temperature, pressure, strain, pH, etc., to 4-20mA DC for the purpose of transmitting the signal over some distance with little or no loss of signal. This paper reviews the operation of this transmission standard and its advantages, in particular as it relates to two-wire transmitters and the associated 4-20mA current loop.

 

This white paper is sponsored by Acromag.

Innovative Cleaning of Air Preheater Coils with Pressurized Liquid Nitrogen

09/17/2014

Cleaning of air heaters in power plants or recovery boilers has been traditionally done with high pressure water, chemicals or steam. These techniques, while effective on moderate air-side fouling of heat exchange surfaces, are usually ineffective on more tenacious deposits that can develop in coal-fired plants with buildup of fly ash, dust and oil. If these deposits are not cleaned periodically, the heat transfer in the heaters is reduced, which in turn reduces boiler efficiency and increases a unit’s heat rate. Severe fouling on air preheaters and air heaters can even reduce a unit’s Mw output. This paper discusses the recent introduction of a highly effective method of cleaning air heaters utilizing pressurized liquid nitrogen (LN2). A success story at PPL Generation’s Brunner Island plant illustrates the effectiveness of this new technology.

White Paper brought to you by Conco Systems Inc.

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